President: Johannes Rau (since May 1999)
Prime Minister: John Howard (since 3/11/96)
Independence: January 1, 1901 (from the United Kingdom)
Population: 19,357,594 (July 2001 est.)
Location/Size: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean/7,686,850 sq. km (2,971,081 sq. mi), about the size of the contiguous United States
Major Cities: Sydney, Melbourne, Canberra (capital), Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide
Languages: English, native languages
Ethnic Groups: Caucasian (92%), Asian (7%), aboriginal and other (1%)
Religions: Anglican (26%), Catholic (26%), other Christian (24%), non-Christian (11%)
Defense (8/98): Army (25,400), Navy (14,300), Air Force (17,700)

Currency: Australian Dollar ($A)
Market Exchange Rate (5/24/02): US $1=$A1.79
Nominal Gross Domestic (GDP, 2001E): U.S.$365.8 billion
Real GDP Growth Rate (2001E): 4.1% (2002F): 3.8%
Inflation Rate (2001E): 4.3% (2002F): 3.0%
Unemployment Rate (2001E): 6.9% (2002F): 7.0%
Current Account Balance (2001E): -$15.3 billion (2002F): -$16.9 billion
Major Trading Partners: Japan, other Far East, European Union, United States
Major Export Products: crude materials, food and live animals, mineral fuels and lubricants
Major Import Products: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals

Minister for Industry, Tourism and Resources: Ian E. McFarlane
Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/02E): 3.5 billion barrels
Oil Production (2001E): 632,918 barrels per day (bbl/d)
Oil Consumption (2001E): 872,000 bbl/d
Net Oil Imports (2001E): 239,082 bbl/d
Crude Refining Capacity (1/1/02E): 846,250 bbl/d
Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/02E): 90.6 trillion cubic feet (Tcf)
Natural Gas Production (2000E): 1.12 Tcf
Natural Gas Consumption (2000E): 755 billion cubic feet (Bcf)
Recoverable Coal Reserves (2000E): 90,489 million short tons
Coal Production (2000E): 337.15 million short tons (Mmst)
Coal Consumption (2000E): 144.17 Mmst
Electric Generation Capacity (1/1/00E): 43 million kilowatts (84% Thermal, 14% Hydroelectric)
Electricity Generation (2000E): 202.7 billion kilowatthours
Electricity Consumption (2000E): 188.5 billion kilowatthours

Minister for the Environment & Heritage: David Kemp
Minister for Forestry & Conservation: Ian McDonald
Total Energy Consumption (2000E): 4.89 quadrillion Btu* (1.2% of world total energy consumption)
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (2000E): 96.87 million metric tons of carbon (1.5% of world carbon emissions)
Per Capita Energy Consumption (2000E): 255 million Btu (vs U.S. value of 351 million Btu)
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (2000E): 5.1 metric tons of carbon (vs U.S. value of 5.6 metric tons of carbon)
Energy Intensity (2000E): 10,804 Btu/ U.S.$1995 (vs U.S. value of 10,918 Btu/ $1995)**
Carbon Intensity (2000E ): 0.21 metric tons of carbon/thousand U.S.$1995 (vs U.S. value of 0.17 metric tons/thousand $1995)**
Sectoral Share of Energy Consumption (1999E): Transportation (42%) Industrial (37%), Residential (13.5%), Commercial (7.5%)
Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions (1998E): Industrial (46.4%), Transportation (26.5%), Residential (15.2%), Commercial (11.9%)
Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (2000E): Coal (44.2%), Oil (34.8%), Natural Gas (16.6%)
Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (1999E): Coal (55.4%), Oil (32.6%), Natural Gas (12.0%)
Renewable Energy Consumption (1998E): 396 trillion Btu* (0.9% increase from 1997)
Number of People per Motor Vehicle (1998): 1.7 (vs U.S. value of 1.3)
Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified December 30th,1992).
Signatory to the Kyoto Protocol (April 29th, 1998). Under the Protocol, Australia has agreed to an 8% increase from 1990 emissions levels of a basket of greenhouse gases.
Major Environmental Issues: Soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; natural habitat of many unique
animal and plant species is threatened by clearing for agricultural purposes; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site;
limited natural fresh water resources.
Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 and Wetlands. Has signed but not ratified, Desertification.

* The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar and wind electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy
Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions
are also based on IEA data.
**GDP based on EIA International Energy Annual 2000

Major Oil and Gas Producing Regions: Western Australia; Victoria; South Australia; Queensland; Northern Territory
Major Ports: Sydney; Melbourne; Geelong; Fremantle; Adelaide; Brisbane
Major Oil Fields: Roller, Skate, Bass Strait, Wanea-Cossack, Laminaria, Corallina
Major Gas Fields: Bass Strait, Cooper Basin, North Rankin, Goodwyn, Gorgon
Major Oil Refineries (crude oil capacity): BP Amoco - Bulwer Island (69,825 bbl/d), BP Amoco - Kwinana (158,500 bbl/d), Caltex - Kurnell (114,000 bbl/d), Caltex - Lytton (105,500 bbl/d), Inland Oil Refiners - Eromanga (1,425 bbl/d),
ExxonMobil - Adelaide (74,000 bbl/d), ExxonMobil - Altona (130,000 bbl/d), Shell - Clyde (85,000 bbl/d), Shell - Geelong (110,000 bbl/d)

Major Coal Producing Regions: New South Wales; Queensland; Victoria; South Australia
Major Export Ports: Newcastle; Hay Point; Gladstone; Port Kembla

Sources for this report include: AAP Information Services; Alexander's Oil and Gas Connections; Asia Pulse; Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association Ltd.; Australian Financial Review; Coal Week International; Dow Jones News wire service; DRI-WEFA Asia Economic Outlook; Economist Intelligence Unit ViewsWire; Financial Times; Gas-to-Liquids News; Hart's Asian Petroleum News; Oil and Gas Journal; Petroleum Intelligence Weekly; Platt's International Coal Report; The Times (London); U.S. Commerce Department, International Trade Administration -- Country Commercial Guides; U.S. Energy Information Administration; World Markets Energy.