President: Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (elected 10/27/02)
Independence: September 7, 1822 (from Portugal)
Population (2002E): 174.6 million
Location/Size: Eastern South America/3.3 million square miles, slightly smaller than the United States
Major Cities: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Brasilia (capital)
Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Ethnic Groups: white (55% - includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish and Polish), mixed (38%), black (6%), other (1% - includes Japanese, Arab, and Amerindian)
Religions: Roman Catholic (80%)
Defense (8/98): Army (195,000), Navy (68,250), Air Force (50,000), Public Security Forces (385,600)

Currency: 1 Real (R) = 100 centavos
Exchange Rate (7/22/03): US$1 = R 2.96
Gross Domestic Product (GDP, 2002E): $451.7 billion
Real GDP Growth Rate (2002E): 1.5% (2003F): 2.4%
Inflation Rate (consumer prices, 2002E): 8.5% (2003F): 15.3%
Current Account Deficit (2002E): -1.72% of GDP
Merchandise Exports (2002E, $U.S.): $60 billion
Merchandise Imports (2002E, $U.S.): $47 billion
Net Merchandise Trade Surplus (2002E, $U.S.): 13
Major Trading Partners: United States, Argentina, Japan, Germany, Italy
Unemployment Rate (2002E): 7.1% (2003F): 7.4%
Total External Debt (2002E): 208.2
Foreign Exchange Reserves (2002E): 37.7

Minister of Energy and Mines:  Dilma Rousseff
Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/03E): 8.3 billion barrels
Oil Production (2002E): 1.57 million barrels per day (bbl/d), of which 1.3 million bbl/d was crude.
Oil Consumption (2002E): 2.17 million bbl/d
Net Oil Imports (2002E): 0.6 million bbl/d
Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/1/03E): 1.87 million bbl/d
Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/03E): 8.1trillion cubic feet (tcf)
Natural Gas Production (2001E): 210 billion cubic feet (bcf)
Natural Gas Consumption (2001E): 339 bcf
Coal Reserves (2001): 13.1 billion short tons
Coal Production (2001E): 4.53 million short tons (Mmst)
Coal Consumption (2001E): 20.8 Mmst
Electric Generation Capacity (2001E):  73.4 gigawatts (85% hydroelectric)
Net Electricity Generation (2001E): 321.2 billion kilowatthours (bkwh)
Net Electricity Consumption (2001E):  336 bkwh

Minister of Environment: Marina Silva
Total Energy Consumption (2001E): 8.78 quadrillion Btu*
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (2001E): 95.8 million metric tons of carbon
Per Capita Energy Consumption (2001E): 50.9 million Btu (vs. U.S. value of 341.8 million Btu)
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (2001E):
0.56 metric tons of carbon (vs U.S. value of 5.5 metric tons of carbon)
Energy Intensity (2001E): 11,384 Btu/ $1995 (vs U.S. value of 10,736 Btu/ $1995)**
Carbon Intensity (2001E): 0.12 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1995 (vs U.S. value of 0.17 metric tons/thousand $1995)**
Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (2001E): Natural Gas (4.01%), Oil (50.8%), Coal (5.92%)
Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (2001E): Oil (79.8%), Natural Gas (6.61%), Coal (13.6%)
Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Non-Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified June 4th, 1992). Signatory to the Kyoto Protocol (April 29th, 1998 and ratified on August 23, 2002).
Major Environmental Issues: Deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities
Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,   , Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands and Whaling.

* The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, wood and waste electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data.
** GDP based on EIA International Energy Annual 2001.

Organization: Petroleo Brasileiro (Petrobrás) - government-owned (majority shareholder) oil and natural gas company; Centrais Eletricas Brasileira (Eletrobrás) - federal holding company for planning and coordination of generation, transmission and distribution of electrical power
Major Petroleum Terminals: Sao Sebastiao, Paranagua, Salvador, Tramandai, Sao Francisco do Sul, Aracaju, Maceio, Recidfe, Natal, Fortaleza, and Belem
Major Ports: Santos, Rio de Janeiro, Praia Mole, Vitoria, Rio Grande
Major Oil and Gas Fields: Campos Basin (includes Marlim, Albacora, and Barracuda fields), Santos Basin
Major Refineries (January 2003 capacity, all belonging to Petrobrás): Paulinia - Sao Paulo (337,764 bbl/d), Mataripe-Bahia (283,734 bbl/d), Duque de Caxias - Rio de Janeiro (232,213 bbl/d), Sao Jose dos Campos - Sao Paulo (217,134 bbl/d), Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (180,945), Araucaria - Parana (180,945 bbl/d), Cubatao-Sao Paulo (162,851 bbl/d), Betim-Minas Gerais (144,756 bbl/d)

Sources for this report include: Agência Nacional do Petróleo; Argus Latin American Energy and Latin American Power Watch; Business News Americas; CIA World Factbook; Global Insight; Dow Jones; Economist Intelligence Unit ViewsWire; Energy Day; Financial Times; Infopetro Bulletin; International Energy Agency; International Petroleum Finance; Latin America Monitor; Lloyd's List; New York Times; Oil Daily; Oil and Gas Journal; Olade; Petroleum Economist; Reuters; Platts; The Economist Intelligence Unit; U.S. Department of State; U.S. Energy Information Administration; Valor Economico; Wood MacKenzie Ltd.; World Gas Intelligence; World Markets Online.