President: Andrés Pastrana (elected June 1998)
President-elect: Alvaro Uribe (elected May 2002)
Independence: July 20, 1810 (from Spain)
Population (2001E): 40.3 million
Location/Size: NW South America/1.1 million square kilometers (440,000 square miles), about the size of New Mexico, Texas, and Louisiana combined
Major Cities: Bogotá (capital), Cali, Medellin, Barranquilla
Language: Spanish
Ethnic Groups: Mestizo (58%), White (20%), Mulatto (14%), Black (4%), Black-Amerindian (3%), Amerindian (1%)
Religion: Roman Catholic (90%)
Defense (8/98): Army (121,000); Navy (18,000); Air Force (7,300); Paramilitary Police (87,000)

Minister of Economic Development: Eduardo Pizano de Narvaez
Exchange Rate (5/23/02): US$1 = 2299.5 Colombian pesos
Gross Domestic Product (GDP, nominal, 2001E): $81.8 billion
Real GDP Growth Rate (2001E): 1.6% (2002F): 1.6%
Inflation Rate (consumer prices, 2001E): 7.7% (2002F): 8.4%
Unemployment Rate (2001E): 18.0% (2002F): 16.1%
Total Foreign Debt (2001E): $34 billion
Current Account Balance (2001E): -2.7% of GDP
Major Trading Partners: United States, Venezuela, Germany, Japan, Peru
Major Exports: Petroleum, coal, coffee
Major Imports: Capital goods, industrial inputs, consumer goods

Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/02E): 1.75 billion barrels
Oil Production (2001E): 616,000 barrels/day (bbl/d), of which 602,000 bbl/d was crude oil
Oil Consumption (2001E): 272,000 bbl/d
Net Oil Exports (2001E): 344,000 bbl/d
Oil Exports to the U.S. (2001E): 280,000 bbl/d
Crude Refining Capacity (1/1/02E): 285,850 bbl/d
Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/02E): 4.3 trillion cubic feet
Natural Gas Production (2000E): 201 billion cubic feet (Bcf)
Natural Gas Consumption (2000E): 201 Bcf
Recoverable Coal Reserves (1/1/97E): 7.4 billion short tons
Coal Production (2000E): 42.0 million short tons (MMST)
Coal Consumption (2000E): 4.7 MMST
Electric Generating Capacity (1/1/00E): 13.2 gigawatts
Electric Generation (2000E): 43.3 billion kilowatthours (31.7 bkwh hydroelectric, 11.2 bkwh thermal, 0.4 bkwh other renewables)

Minister of Environment: Juan Mayr Maldonaldo
Total Energy Consumption (1999E):1.2 quadrillion Btu (0.3% of world total energy consumption)
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (1999E): 16.4 million metric tons of carbon (0.3% of world carbon emissions)
Per Capita Energy Consumption (1999E):
29.4 million Btu (vs. U.S. value of 355.8 million Btu)
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (1999E): 0.4 metric tons of carbon (vs. U.S. value of 5.5 metric tons of carbon)
Energy Intensity (1999E): 24,076 Btu/ $1990 (vs. U.S. value of 12,638 Btu/ $1990)**
Carbon Intensity (1999E):
0.33 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1990 (vs. U.S. value of 0.19 metric tons/thousand $1990)**
Sectoral Share of Energy Consumption (1998E): Residential (22.9%), Industrial (43.4%), Transportation (26.3%), Commercial (7.4%)
Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions (1998E): Transportation (42.0%), Industrial (40.4%), Commercial (5.2%), Residential (12.4%)
Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (1999E): Oil (49.2%), Natural Gas (14.0%), Coal (7.8%)
Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (1999E): Oil (69.2%), Natural Gas (16.5%), Coal (14.3%)
Renewable Energy Consumption (1998E): 524 trillion Btu* (0.5% decrease from 1997)
Number of People per Motor Vehicle (1998):
25 (vs. U.S. value of 1.3)
Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Non-Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified March 22, 1995). Not a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol.
Major Environmental Issues: Deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to the Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83 and Tropical Timber 94. Has signed, but not ratified, the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea and Marine Dumping

* The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, wood and waste electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data.

Organization: Oil: Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos (Ecopetrol); Natural gas: Ecopetrol, Energy and Gas Regulatory Commission (CREG), Empresa Colombiana de Gas (Ecogas)
Major Ports: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto Bolívar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaca, Turbo
Major Oil-Producing Fields: Cusiana (BP Amoco); Cano Limón (Occidental)
Major Oil Pipelines: Oleoducto Central (Ocensa, from Cusiana/Cupiagua to Covenas); Cano Limón (to Covenas); Transandino (OTA, from Ecuador to Tumaco)
Major Natural Gas Pipelines: Mariquita-Cali (TransGas Occidente); Ballena-Barrancabermeja; Barrancabermeja-Neiva-Bogotá (Centro Oriente)
Refineries (1/1/02E Capacity): 285,850 bbl/d, all run by state-run Ecopetrol. Two main refineries, Barrancabermeja - Santander (205,000 bbl/d) and Cartagena - Bolívar (75,000 bbl/d). Other refineries: Tibu - N. de Santander (1,800 bbl/d), Orito - Putumayo (1,800 bbl/d), and Apiay (2,250 bbl/d).

Sources for this report include: Argus LatAm Energy and Latin American Power Watch; CIA World Factbook; Dow Jones News wire service; DRI/WEFA Latin America Economic Outlook; Economist Intelligence Unit ViewsWire; Financial Times; Oil and Gas Journal; Oil Daily; Petroleum Economist; Petroleum Intelligence Weekly; U.S. Energy Information Administration; World Markets Online.