President: Tarja Halonen
Prime Minister: Matti Taneli Vanhanen
Independence: December 6, 1917 (from Russia)
Population (2003E): 5.2 million
Location/Size: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Major City: Helsinki (capital)
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Russian Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%
Languages: Finnish 93.4% (official), Swedish 5.9% (official), small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities

Minister of Trade and Industry: Mauri Pekkarinen
Currency: Euro (EUR) US$1 = 0.91996 EUR
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (2002E) - market exchange rate: $132.1 billion
Real GDP Growth Rate (2002E): 1.6% (2003F): 1.8%
Consumer Price Inflation (2002E): 1.6% (2003F): 1.0%
Unemployment Rate (2002E): 9.1% (2003F): 9.7%
Current Account Surplus (2002E): $9.7 billion (7.4% of GDP)
Exports of Goods (2002E): $44.7 billion
Imports of Goods (2002E): $31.5 billion
Net Exports of Goods (2002E): $13.2 billion
Major Trading Partners: Germany, Russia, Sweden, United States, United Kingdom
Major Export Products: Machinery and equipment, chemicals, timber, paper, pulp
Major Import Products: Foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
Foreign Exchange Reserves excludiing gold (2002E): $9.3 billion

Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/03): None
Oil Production (2002E): None Oil Consumption (2002E): 211,000 bbl/d (all imported)
Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/1/03): 251,800 bbl/d
Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/03): None
Natural Gas Production (2001E): None
Natural Gas Consumption (2001E): 161 billion cubic feet (all imported)
Coal Production (2001E): None
Coal Consumption (2001E): 7.3 million short tons (all imported)
Electric Generating Capacity (1/1/02): 16.2 gigawatts (66% thermal, 18% hydro, 16% nuclear, 0.2% "other")
Net Electricity Generation (2001E): 71.2 billion kilowatthours

Minister of Environment and Nordic Cooperation: Jan-Erik Enestam
Total Energy Consumption (2001E): 1.33 quadrillion Btu* (0.3% of world total energy consumption)
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (2001E): 14.4 million metric tons of carbon (0.2% of world carbon emissions)
Per Capita Energy Consumption (2001E): 255.5 million Btu (vs. U.S. value of 341.8 million Btu)
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (2001E): 2.8 metric tons of carbon (vs. U.S. value of 5.5 metric tons of carbon)
Energy Intensity (2001E; Purchasing Power Parity exchange rates): 7,851 Btu/thousand $1990 (vs U.S. value of 12,068 Btu/thousand $1990)**
Carbon Intensity (2001E; Purchasing Power Parity exchange rates): 0.09 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1990 (vs U.S. value of 0.19 metric tons/thousand $1990)**
Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (2001E): Oil (33.1%), Nuclear (16.5%), Coal (12.8%), Natural Gas (12.0%), Hydro (10.5%)
Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (2001E): Oil (53.8%); Coal (29.9%), Natural Gas (16.3%)
Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified February 21st, 1996). Signatory to the Kyoto Protocol.
Major Environmental Issues: Air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Major International Environmental Agreements: Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

* The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, and wood and waste electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data.

**GDP based on estimates from Global Insight

Sources for this report include: Agence France Presse; Associated Press; Baltic News Service; CIA World Factbook; Dow Jones News Wire service; Economist Intelligence Unit ViewsWire; Europe Energy; Financial Times; Global Insight; InfoProd; Investment Report; Lloyd's List; New York Times; News Bulletin; Nordic Business Report; Platt's International Coal Report; Power Engineering International; Project Finance; TASS; U.S. Energy Information Administration; Utility Week; World Markets Research Centre.