President: Jacques Chirac (since May 1995)
Prime Minister: Jean-Pierre Raffarin (since May 2002)
Independence: 486 (unified by Clovis)
Population (2002E): 59.4 million
Location/Size: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain/547,030 sq km (slightly less than twice the size of Colorado)
Language: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
Ethnic groups: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities
Religions: Roman Catholic 83-88%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 5-10%, unaffiliated 4%
Defense (8/98): Army 203,200; Air Force 78,100; Navy 63,300

Economy, Finance, and Industry Minister: Francis Mer
Currency: Euro (EUR)
Exchange Rate (3/21/03): 1 U.S. Dollar = EUR 0.942
Gross Domestic Product (GDP, 2002E): $1.42 trillion
Real GDP Growth Rate (2002E): 1.2% (2003F): 1.4%
Inflation Rate (consumer prices, 2002E): 1.9% (2003F): 1.7%
Unemployment Rate (2002E): 8.8% (2003F): 9.0%
Exports of Goods and Services (2002E): $309.1 billion
Imports of Goods and Services (2002E): $299.1 billion
Major Trading Partners: Germany, Italy, Belgium, the United Kingdom, the United States
Major Export Products: Machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products, chemical products
Major Import Products: Machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products, chemical products, and energy

Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/03E): 148 million barrels
Oil Production (2002E): 76,917 barrels per day (bbl/d), of which 26,900 bbl/d is crude oil
Oil Consumption (2002E): 1.96 million bbl/d
Net Oil Imports (2002E): 1.85 million bbl/d
Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/1/03E): 1.9 million bbl/d
Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/03E): 506 billion cubic feet (Bcf)
Natural Gas Production (2001E): 0.07 trillion cubic feet (Tcf)
Natural Gas Consumption (2001E): 1.48 Tcf
Net Natural Gas Imports (2001E): 1.41 Tcf
Coal Reserves (2001E): 39 million short tons (Mmst)
Coal Production (2001E): 2.53 Mmst
Coal Consumption (2001E): 20.89 Mmst
Electricity Generation (2001E): 520 billion kilowatthours (bkwh), nuclear (77%), hydro (14%), thermal (8.2%), less than 1% other renewables
Electricity Consumption (2001E): 415 bkwh
Net Electricity Exports (2001E): 72.6 bkwh

Minister of Environment and Sustainable Development: Roselyne Bachelot-Narquin
Total Energy Consumption (2001E): 10.5 quadrillion Btu* (2.6% of world total energy consumption)
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (2001E): 108.1 million metric tons of carbon (1.6% of world carbon emissions)
Per Capita Energy Consumption (2001E): 177.8 million Btu (vs. U.S. value of 341.8 million Btu)
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (2001E): 1.83 metric tons of carbon (vs. U.S. value of 5.51 metric tons of carbon)
Energy Intensity (2001E): 5,805 Btu/ $1995 (vs U.S. value of 10,736 Btu/ $1995)**
Carbon Intensity (2001E): 0.06 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1995 (vs U.S. value of 0.17 metric tons/thousand $1995)**
Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (2001E): Oil (40%), Natural Gas (15.3%), Coal (4.6%)
Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (2001E): Oil (67%), Natural Gas (21.5%), Coal (11%)
Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified March 25th, 1994). Signatory to the Kyoto Protocol (April 29th, 1998) and ratified the Treaty on May 31, 2002.
Major Environmental Issues: Some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes and agricultural runoff.
Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to Conventions on Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands and Whaling. Has signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol.

* The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, wood and waste electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data.

**GDP based on EIA International Energy Annual 2001.

Sources for this report include: CIA World Factbook; Dow Jones News Wire service; Economist; Economist Intelligence Unit Views Wire; Electricity Utility Week; Europe Information Service; Financial Times; French Ministry of the Economy,Finance and Industry; Global Insight; International Energy Agency; International Petroleum Finance; La Commission de Régulation de l'Electricité; Nucleonics; Oil and Gas Journal; Petroleum Economist; Petroleum Intelligence Weekly; Réseau de Transport d'Electricité; Reuters; U.S. Department of Labor; U.S. Energy Information Administration; Wall Street Journal; World Gas Intelligence.