President: Abdul Kalam (since July 26, 2002)
Prime Minister: Atal Behari Vajpayee (since March 19, 1998)
Independence: August 15, 1947 (from the United Kingdom)
Population (07/2002E): 1.0 billion (2nd most populous country)
Location/Size: Southern Asia/3.3 million square kilometers 1.3 million square miles), one-third the size of the United States
Major Cities: New Delhi (capital), Mumbai (Bombay), Calcutta, Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Bangalore, Ahmedabad
Languages: Hindi, 17 other official languages, English
Ethnic Groups: Indo-Aryan (72%), Dravidian (25%), Mongoloid, other (3%)
Religions: Hindu (80%), Muslim (14%), Christian (2.4%), Sikh (2%), Buddhist (0.7%), Jains (0.5%), other (0.4%)
Defense (8/98): Army (980,000), Air Force (110,000), Navy (55,000), Jammu/Kashmir Border Security Force (185,000)

Currency: Rupee
Exchange Rate (2/24/02): US$1 = 47.8 rupees
Gross Domestic Product (GDP, FY2002E): $514.4 billion
Real GDP Growth Rate (FY2002E): 4.8% (FY2003E): 5.7%
Inflation Rate (FY2002E): 3.6% (FY2003E): 4.6%
Current Account Balance (FY2002E): -$0.9 billion
Major Trading Partners: United States, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Russia
Merchandise Trade Balance (FY2002E): -$7.3 billion
Merchandise Exports (FY2002E): $48.8 billion
Merchandise Imports (FY2002E): $56.1 billion
Major Export Products: Gems and jewelry, engineering goods, clothing, cotton textiles, leather and leather manufactures, iron ore, chemicals, software
Major Import Products: Petroleum and petroleum products, machinery, iron and steel, edible oils, chemicals, fertilizers
Monetary Reserves (FY 2002, non-gold): $46.8 billion
External Debt (FY2002E): $101.0 billion
NOTE: FY (Fiscal Year) (FY 2002 April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003)

Energy-Related Ministries: Coal--Ramvilas Paswan; Petroleum and Natural Gas--Ram Naik; Electric Power--Anant Gangaram Geete
Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/03E): 5.4 billion barrels
Oil Production (2002E): 759,000 barrels per day (bbl/d), of which 665,000 bbl/d was crude oil
Oil Consumption (2002E): 2.0 million bbl/d
Net Oil Imports (2002E): 1.2 million bbl/d
Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/1/03E): 2.1 million bbl/d
Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/03E): 26.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf)
Natural Gas Production (2001E): 803 Bcf
Natural Gas Consumption (2001E): 803 Bcf
Recoverable Coal Reserves (12/31/96E): 82.4 billion short tons
Coal Production (2001E): 360 million short tons (Mmst)
Coal Consumption (2001E): 339 Mmst
Net Coal Imports (2001E): 21 Mmst
Electric Generation Capacity (1/1/01E): 112 gigawatts (GW), including 83 GW thermal, 25 GW hydro, 2 GW nuclear
Electricity Generation (2001E): 533 billion kilowatthours (79% conventional thermal; 18% hydro; 2% nuclear)

Minister for Environment and Forest: T. R. Baalu
Total Energy Consumption (2001E): 12.8 quadrillion Btu* (3.2% of world total energy consumption)
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (2001E): 251.3 million metric tons of carbon (3.8% of world total carbon emissions)
Per Capita Energy Consumption (2001E): 12.6 million Btu (vs U.S. value of 341.8 million Btu)
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (2001E): 0.25 metric tons of carbon (vs U.S. value of 5.5 metric tons of carbon)
Energy Intensity (2001E): 25,307 Btu/$1995 (vs U.S. value of 10,736 Btu/ $1995)**
Carbon Intensity (2001E): 0.50 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1995 (vs U.S. value of 0.17 metric tons/thousand $1995)**
Sectoral Share of Energy Consumption (1998E): Industrial (41.0%), Transportation (9.5%), Residential (47.3%), Commercial (2.2%)
Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions (1998E): Industrial (67.3%), Transportation (15.6%), Residential (13.7%), Commercial (3.3%)
Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (2001E): Coal (50.9%), Oil (34.4%), Natural Gas (6.5%)
Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (2001E): Coal (64.5%), Oil (30.3%), Natural Gas (5.2%)
Renewable Energy Consumption (1998E): 9,015 trillion Btu* (2% increase from 1997)
Number of People per Motor Vehicle (1998): 142.9 (vs U.S. value of 1.3)
Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Non-Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified November 1st, 1993). Not a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol.
Major Environmental Issues: Deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and rapidly growing population is overstraining natural resources.
Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands and Whaling.

* The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, wood and waste electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data.
**GDP based on EIA International Energy Annual 2001

Organization: Petroleum - Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Oil India Ltd. (OIL), Indian Oil Corporation (IOC); Natural Gas - Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL); Coal - Coal India Limited (CIL); Electric Power - National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), National Hydroelectric Power Corporation, State Electricity Boards
Major Oil Fields (2001 production): Bombay Offshore: Bombay High (203,355 bbl/d), B-38/Heera & S. Heera (48,000 bbl/d), Neelam (29,895 bbl/d); Eastern: Lakwa-Lakhmani (14,660 bbl/d); Western: Gandhar (40,000 bbl/d); Southern: Tiruvarur (51,165 bbl/d)
Major Oil Terminals: Bombay, Cochin, Haldia, Kandla, Madras, Vizag
Major Oil Refineries (1/1/03 capacity): Reliance-Jamnagar , 540,000 bbl/d, Koyali-Gujarat, 185,100 bbl/d; Mangalore, 180,000 bbl/d, Mathura-Uttar Pradesh, 156,000 bbl/d; Mahul-Bombay (Bharat Petroleum), 120,000 bbl/d; Madras, 130,660 bbl/d, Mahul-Bombay (Hindustan Petroleum), 111,700 bbl/d
Major Pipelines: Oil--Salaya-New Delhi, Barauni-Digboi, Kandla-Bhatindu (products); Natural Gas--Hazira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur (HBJ)