Chief of State: Emperor Akihito (since 1/7/89)
Prime Minister: Junichiro Koizumi (since 4/24/01)
Population (2001E): 126.8 million
Location/Size: Eastern Asia - island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan/145,882 square miles (slightly smaller than California)
Major Cities: Tokyo (capital), Osaka (Kansai), Nagoya, Fukuoka/Kitakyushu, Sapporo
Languages: Japanese
Ethnic Groups: Japanese (99.4%)
Religion: Shinto and Buddhist (84%), other (16%)
Defense (8/98): Army (151,800), Navy (43,800), Air Force (45,600), U.S. Forces in Japan (39,100)

Currency: Yen
Exchange Rate (4/11/01): US$1 =130.8 Yen
Gross Domestic Product (GDP, at market exchange rate) (2001E): $4.1 trillion (2002F): $3.8 trillion
Real GDP Growth Rate (2001E): -0.4% (2002F): -1.1%
Inflation Rate (consumer prices)(2001E): -0.6% (2002F): -0.4%
Current Account Balance (2001E): $70.6 billion
Major Trading Partners: United States, Germany, Asian NIEs, China, OPEC
Merchandise Exports (2001E): $364.6 billion
Merchandise Imports (2001E): $300.7 billion
Merchandise Trade Surplus (2001E): $63.9 billion
Major Export Products: Machinery and transport equipment; chemical and other manufactured goods
Major Import Products: Chemical and other manufactured goods; machinery and transport equipment; mineral fuels; foodstuffs; crude material

Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/02E): 59 million barrels
Oil Production (January 2002E): 73,620 barrels per day (bbl/d), of which 6,000 bbl/d is crude oil
Oil Consumption (2002E): 5.4 million bbl/d
Net Oil Imports (2002E): 5.3 million bbl/d
Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/1/02E): 4.8 million bbl/d
Major Crude Oil Import Sources (2002E): United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Qatar, Indonesia
Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/02E): 1.4 trillion cubic feet (Tcf)
Natural Gas Production (1999E): 0.08 Tcf
Net Natural Gas Consumption (1999E): 2.64 Tcf
Natural Gas Imports (1999E): 2.58 Tcf
Coal Reserves (12/31/96E): 865 million short tons (Mmst)
Coal Production (1999E): 4.1 million short tons (Mmst)
Coal Consumption (1999E): 149.5 Mmst
Net Coal Imports (1999E): 145.4 Mmst
Electric Generation Capacity (1/1/99E): 226 gigawatts
Electricity Production (1999E): 1,018 billion kilowatthours

Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, & Fisheries: Tokuichiro Tamazawa
Director General Environment Agency: Kayoko Shimizu
Total Energy Consumption (1999E): 21.7 quadrillion Btu* (5.7% of world total energy consumption)
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (1999E): 306.6 million metric tons of carbon (4.9% of world total carbon emissions)
Per Capita Energy Consumption (1999E): 171.6 million Btu (vs U.S. value of 355.8 million Btu)
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (1999E): 2.4 metric tons of carbon (vs U.S. value of 5.5 metric tons of carbon)
Energy Intensity (1999E): 6,523 Btu/ $1990 (vs U.S. value of 12,638 Btu/ $1990)**
Carbon Intensity (1999E): 0.09 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1990 (vs U.S. value of 0.19 metric tons/thousand $1990)**
Sectoral Share of Energy Consumption (1998E): Industrial (50.5%), Transportation (19.3%), Residential (15.8%), Commercial (14.4%)
Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions (1998E): Industrial (50.1%), Transportation (25.1%), Residential (13.2%), Commercial (11.6%)
Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (1999E): Oil (52.1%), Coal (15.3%), Natural Gas (12.7%)
Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (1999E): Oil (60.4%), Coal (26.6%), Natural Gas (13.0%)
Renewable Energy Consumption (1998E): 1,342 trillion Btu* (1% increase from 1997)
Number of People per Motor Vehicle (1998): 1.8 (vs U.S. value of 1.3)
Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified May 28th, 1993). Under the negotiated Kyoto Protocol (signed on April 28th, 1998, but not yet ratified), Japan has agreed to reduce greenhouse gases 6% below 1990 levels by the 2008-2012 commitment period.
Major Environmental Issues: Air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japan is one of the largest consumers of fish and tropical timber, contributing to the depletion of these resources in Asia and elsewhere.
Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands and Whaling.

* The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, wood and waste electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data.
**GDP based on EIA International Energy Annual 1999

Organizations: Electric Power Development Co. (EPDC) - a quasi-governmental wholesale power company established in 1952 to help secure stable supplies of electricity. EPDC is scheduled for privatization within the next 5 years. Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC, or Donen) -- the government nuclear oversight organization; Japan National Oil Company -- government owned
Major Oil Companies: Arabian Oil (Tokyo), Cosmo Oil, Tonen General Sekiyu, Indonesia Petroleum Ltd., Itochu, Japan Energy, Japan National Oil Corp. (JNOC), Japan Petroleum Exploration., Mitsui Oil Exploration, Nippon Mitsubishi Oil, Showa Shell Sekiyu, Sodeco, Sumitomo, Teikoku Oil
Major Electric Power Companies: Chubu Electric, Chugoku Electric, Hokkaido Electric, Hokuriku Electric, Japan Atomic Power, Kansai Electric, Kyushu Electric, PNC, Shikoku Electric, Tohoku Electric, Tokyo Electric
Major Refineries (capacity, bbl/d): Negishi (365,750), Ichihara -- Chiba (228,000), Mizushima (190,000), Cosmo -- Chiba (228,000), Showa Yokkaichi (222,000), Tonen Kawasaki (292,950)
Pipelines: Crude oil 52 miles; petroleum products 200 miles; natural gas 1,116 miles

Sources for this report include: Coal Week International; Dow Jones News wire service; Economist Intelligence Unit ViewsWire; Electric Utility Week International; Kyodo News Service; Nikkei Shimbun; Oil and Gas Journal; Petroleum Economist; Petroleum Intelligence Weekly; U.S. Energy Information Administration; WEFA Asia Economic Outlook; World Gas Intelligence.