President: Ahmet Necdet Sezer (since May 5, 2000)
Prime Minister: Recep Tayyip Erdogan (since March 11, 2003)
Independence: October 29, 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
Population (July 2002E): 67.3 million
Location/Size: Southwest Asia/780,580 sq. km (301,930 sq. mi.), slightly larger than Texas
Major Cities: Ankara (capital), Istanbul, Izmir, Adana
Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic
Ethnic Groups: Turkish (80%), Kurdish (20%)
Religions: Muslim (99.8%, mostly Sunni), other 0.2%
Defense (8/1/98): Army (525,000), Navy (51,000), Air Force (63,000), Coast Guard (2,200), Reserves (378,700)

Finance Minister: Kemal Unakitan
Currency: Turkish lira (TL)
Market Exchange Rate (5/1/03): US$1=1,588,256 TL (compared to US1$=640,260 TL on 8/3/00)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (2002E, market exchange rates): $182.9 billion
Real GDP Growth Rate (2001E): -7.4% (2002E): 4.9% (2003F): 4.1%
Consumer Price Inflation Rate (2001E): 54.4% (2002E): 45.0% (2003F): 24.4%
Unemployment Rate (2002E): 7.6% (2003F): 6.9%
Current Account Balance (2001E): $3.2 billion (2002E): -$3.0 billion
Major Trading Partners: Germany, United States, Italy, France, United Kingdom, Russia
Merchandise Exports (2002E): $39.3 billion (around half going to the EU)
Merchandise Imports (2002E): $48.3 billion
Merchandise Trade Balance (2002E): -$9.0 billion
Major Export Products: Agricultural, textiles, iron, steel
Major Import Products: Oil, machinery, chemicals, iron, steel
Foreign Debt (1/03): $58.6 billion

Minister of Energy and Natural Resources: Hilmi Guler
Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/03E): 300 million barrels
Oil Production (2002E): 50,674 barrels per day (bbl/d) of which 46,674 bbl/d was crude oil
Oil Consumption (2002E): 635,000 bbl/d
Net Oil Imports (2002E): 584,326 bbl/d
Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/1/03E): 719,275 bbl/d
Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/03E): 300 billion cubic feet (Bcf)
Natural Gas Production (2001E): 11 Bcf
Natural Gas Consumption (2001E): 563 Bcf (more than triple the 150 Bcf consumed in 1991)
Net Natural Gas Imports (2001E): 552 Bcf
Coal Production (2001E): 72.6 million short tons (Mmst)
Coal Consumption (2001E): 81.1 Mmst
Net Coal Imports (2001E): 8.5 Mmst
Estimated Recoverable Coal (2001E): 4.1 billion short tons
Electric Generation Capacity (2001E): 27.3 gigawatts (59% thermal, 41% hydroelectric)
Net Electricity Generation (2001E): 116.6 terawatthours (Twh)
Electricity Consumption (2001E): 112.6 Twh (up sharply from 54.0 Twh in 1991, but down from 114.0 in 2000)

Minister of Environment: Kursat Tuzmen
Total Energy Consumption (2001E): 2.9 quadrillion Btu* (0.7% of world total energy consumption)
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (2001E): 50.1 million metric tons of carbon (0.8% of world total carbon emissions)
Per Capita Energy Consumption (2001E): 42.1 million Btu (vs. U.S. value of 341.8 million Btu)
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (2001E): 0.7 metric tons of carbon (vs. U.S. value of 5.5 metric tons of carbon)
Energy Intensity (2001E): 15,126 Btu/$1995 (vs U.S. value of 10,736 Btu/$1995)**
Carbon Intensity (2001E): 0.26 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1995 (vs U.S. value of 0.17 metric tons/thousand $1995)**
Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (2001E): Oil (43.0%), Coal (26.2%), Natural Gas (20.3%)
Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (2001E): Oil (44.2%), Coal (38.8%), Natural Gas (16.9%)
Number of People per Motor Vehicle (1998): 12.3 (vs. U.S. value of 1.3)
Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Turkey is not a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or to the Kyoto Protocol.
Major Environmental Issues: Water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic.
Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to Conventions on Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands and Whaling. Has signed, but not ratified, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol and Environmental Modification. Has not signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

* The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, wood and waste electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data.
**GDP based on EIA International Energy Annual 2001

State Oil Company: Turkish State Petroleum Company (TPAO)
State Refining Company: Turkish Petroleum Refineries Corporation (Tupras)
State Pipelines and Gas Agency: BOTAS
State Oil Products Retailer: Petrol Ofisi AS (POAS)
Major Ports: Iskenderun, Istanbul, Mersin, Izmir
Major Oil and Gas Fields: Bati Raman, Karakus, K. Karakus
Major Pipelines: Turkey-Iraq ; Turkey contains 1,078 miles of crude oil pipelines, 1,439 miles of oil product pipelines, and 439 miles of natural gas pipelines
Major Refineries (crude oil capacity): Izmit (251,600 bbl/d), Aliaga-Izmir (226,440 bbl/d), Kirikkale (113,200 bbl/d), Mersin (100,000 bbl/d), Batman-Siirt (22,015 bbl/d); Kahramanmaras (6,000 bbl/d) Sources for this report include: Agence France Presse; Alexander's Gas and Oil Connections; APS Review Market Trends; Associated Press Newswires; BBC Summary of World Broadc

Sources for this report include: Agence France Presse; Alexander's Gas and Oil Connections; APS Review Market Trends; Associated Press Newswires; BBC Summary of World Broadcasts; Cambridge Energy Research Associates; CIA World Factbook; CSIS Caspian Energy Update; Deutsche Bank special report, "Turkey: Winning the Gas Import Race;" Dow Jones Newswires; Economist Intelligence Unit Country Reports, ViewsWire; Energy Day; Energy Report; Financial Times; Global Insight; Global Power Report; Hart's European Petroleum Finance Week; Hart's Oil and Gas Investor; International Energy Agency; International Monetary Fund; International Water Power and Dam Construction; Middle East Economic Digest; National Post (Canada); New York Times; Oil Daily; Oil and Gas Journal; Petroleum Economist; Petroleum Intelligence Weekly; Reuters; PR Newswire;; Turkish Daily News; Turkish Probe; U.S. Energy Information Administration; Wall Street Journal; Washington Post; World Gas Intelligence; World Markets Online.